Approval of COVID-19 vaccines and medicines

COVID-19 vaccines are being developed following the same legal requirements for pharmaceutical quality, safety and effectiveness as other medicines. To gain approval (authorisation) for a vaccine, the vaccine developer must submit the results of all testing and trials to the relevant regulatory authority. Regulators carry out a scientific evaluation of the vaccine’s safety, effectiveness and quality, before concluding whether there is sufficient scientific evidence supporting approval.

For COVID-19, it is expected the applications for vaccines will be made centrally to the European Medicines Agency (EMA). If the EMA concludes that the benefits of the vaccine outweigh its risks in protecting against COVID 19, it will make a recommendation to the European Commission to grant a conditional marketing authorisation. Once the European Commission grants a marketing authorisation for a medicine, this is valid and legally binding across all EU Member States, including Ireland.

Ireland, through the HPRA, is an active participant in all European reviews. The HPRA contributes directly to the assessment of all new medicines and the monitoring of their safety once in use. This is also the case for COVID-19 vaccines and treatments.

Further information on the development, evaluation, approval and monitoring of COVID-19 vaccines can be found on the EMA website

Expedited process – the rolling review

For COVID-19 medicines, the EMA is applying an expedited procedure, called a rolling review.  A rolling review is one of the regulatory tools that the EMA uses to speed up the assessment of a promising medicine or vaccine during a public health emergency.

Normally, all data on a medicine’s effectiveness, safety and quality and all required documents must be submitted at the start of the evaluation in a formal application for marketing authorisation. In the case of a rolling review, the EMA reviews data as they become available from ongoing studies.

During this phase, the EMA assesses data on the vaccine’s quality (such as information about its ingredients and the way it is produced) as well as results from laboratory studies. The EMA also looks at results on the vaccine’s effectiveness and initial safety data emerging from large-scale clinical trials as they become available.

Visit the EMA website for more information about accelerated procedures for COVID-19 treatments and vaccines.

Conditional marketing authorisation

Once the EMA decides that sufficient data are available, the formal application should be submitted by the vaccine developer. According to the EMA, an opinion on a conditional marketing authorisation can be issued within weeks, depending on whether the data submitted are sufficiently robust and complete to show the quality, safety and effectiveness of the vaccine. Such a short timeframe is only possible because the EMA has already reviewed certain data on the vaccine during the rolling review process.

If the EMA concludes that the benefits of the vaccine outweigh its risks in protecting against COVID‑19, it will recommend granting a conditional marketing authorisation. The European Commission will then fast-track its decision-making process with a view to granting a conditional marketing authorisation valid in all EU and EEA Member States within days.

Conditional marketing authorisation is a type of approval for medicines addressing unmet medical needs, and in particular those to be used in emergency situations in response to public health threats recognised by the WHO or the EU. Conditional marketing authorisation can help speed up patient access to new medicines.

COVID-19 vaccines: current status

The tables below list the vaccines that have received conditional marketing authorisation and the vaccines currently in the rolling review process. 

Conditional marketing authorisation 

The European Commission has granted a conditional marketing authorisation for the vaccines listed below.

Product information, including the Summary of Product Characteristics and the Package Leaflet are available on our Product Information for COVID-19 Vaccines page. 


Vaccine Developer

Date of conditional marketing authorisation

More information


BioNTech, in collaboration with Pfizer

21 December 2020

EMA press release 

COVID-19 Vaccine Moderna

Moderna Biotech Spain, S.L.
6 January 2021 EMA press release 
COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca
AstraZeneca, in collaboration with the University of Oxford
 29 January 2021 EMA press release 

COVID-19 Vaccine Janssen


Janssen-Cilag International N.V.
 11 March 2021 EMA press release 
Nuvaxovid (NVX-CoV2373)
Novavax CZ AS 20 December 2021 EMA press release

Marketing authorisation application submitted 

There are no applications currently under evaluation.

Ongoing rolling reviews

The EMA has begun a rolling review process for the vaccines listed in the table below. The rolling review will continue until enough evidence is available to support a formal marketing authorisation application. 


Vaccine Developer

Start of rolling review

More information

Sputnik V (Gam-COVID-Vac)
Russia’s Gamaleya National Centre of Epidemiology and Microbiology
 4 March 2021  EMA press release
COVID-19 Vaccine (Vero Cell) Inactivated
Sinovac Life Sciences Co. Ltd
 4 May 2021  EMA press release
 Sanofi Pasteur
20 July 2021   EMA press release 
 VLA2001  Valneva 2 December 2021  EMA press release 

Please visit the EMA website for information on COVID-19 vaccines withdrawn from rolling review


Medicines for the treatment of COVID-19: current status 

The EMA website contains more information about COVID-19 treatments, including treatments withdrawn from rolling review

Medicinal Product 

Current Status

More information

Veklury (remdesivir)

Authorised for use in the European Union

EMA press release
Regkirona (regdanvimab)
Authorised for use in the European Union
 EMA press release 
(casirivimab / imdevimab)
Authorised for use in the European Union
 EMA press release 
RoActemra (tocilizumab)  Authorised for use in the European Union EMA press release
Xevudy (sotrovimab) Authorised for use in the European Union EMA press release
Kineret (anakinra) Authorised for use in the European Union  EMA press release
Olumiant (baricitinib) Marketing authorisation application submitted EMA press release
Lagevrio (molnupiravir) Marketing authorisation application submitted  EMA press release 
EMA Article 5(3) opinion
Paxlovid (PF07321332/ritonavir) 
Marketing authorisation application submitted 
EMA press release
EMA Article 5(3) opinion 
Currently under rolling review  EMA press release