3Rs Information - Other animals


Home pen design for laboratory dogs

A study by Scullion et al has highlighted the importance of modern home pen designs for laboratory beagles, demonstrating signs of positive welfare and reduced stereotypical behaviour.



NC3Rs laboratory dog resource

This provides information on welfare assessment and refinement in dogs



Facial indicators of positive emotions in birds

An article has been published in Behavioural Processes looking at facial indicators of positive emotions in birds. This article argues that variation in crown feather height and pupil area may provide indications of positive emotion in Japanese quail, and suggests that facial indicators may potentially be used to assess positive emotions in birds in the future.



Development of grimace scale in ferrets

Researchers at a university in the Netherlands have attempted to create a grimace scale specifically for ferrets that had undergone surgical implantation of a telemetry probe. The researchers found that orbital tightening could be useful for pain assessment of ferrets. However, this is a small study and other action units (whisker retraction, nose bulging, cheek bulging and ear changes) should be re-evaluated before they can be included in the facial grimace scale. Prior to incorporating the grimace scale into a multi-factorial pain assessment protocol, it must be further validated using different painful stimuli, analgesic regimens and by measuring more time points.



Amphibian welfare

report has been published in Lab Animal regarding amphibian welfare. This comes following a workshop on amphibian welfare organised by the Zoological Society of London in October 2017. This article summarises the presentations given on the day and identifies the welfare challenges while discussing the steps that need to be taken to improve conditions for this diverse group of animals. We recommend this resource as it should help researchers and animal care staff to identify, and where necessary address, signs of good and poor welfare in amphibian laboratory animals.

Wild animals

Norecopa presentation on wild animal research

A presentation about wild animal research given by Norecopa at the FELASA Congress in June 2019 has been made available to download. The presentation is entitled Research and management of wild animals: Politics, ethics and the 3Rs and covers the major challenges in wildlife research, as well as severity assessment and the role of the designated veterinarian.


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