The 3Rs represent the principles of Replacement, Reduction and Refinement, forming a compassionate framework for animal research. Their aim is to replace animals in scientific studies with alternative methods, such as computer modelling, and where animals remain necessary, to minimise pain or harm and to enhance their welfare.
These principles are the foundation of EU and national legislation concerning the protection and welfare of animals used in science, encompassing domestic as well as wild animals and birds involved in research projects. You can read more about these principles in the table below.
For further information on the 3Rs, see the pages below:
• Large mammal
• Other animals
• General 3Rs
• Useful 3Rs websites
See other useful links.
If you have any queries about these links, or suggestions for additional useful 3Rs resources that could be included here, please email email@example.com.